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Alex Rodriguez Image Repair: Literature Review

Lissful

by: Melissa Schreck Hayley and I worked on Wednesday to get our introduction and literature review put together. We got back our outlines and took into consideration the comments that Dr. Moody made on what needed to be included in these sections. Hayley mainly focused on the introduction and I focused on the literature review. 

We have six sources:

Benoit’s Image Repaire Discourse

Michael Phelps Image Repair

Terrell Owens Image Repair

Michael Vick Image Repair

The Image Repair of Steroids Users in the MLB

and 

The Duke Lacrosse team’s Image Repair

Each of these different sources discussed the scandals that had occurred and what each individual had done in response. It was very interesting to see the different types of image repair responses put to use. It was evident through these sources that some tactics are more effective than others in certain situations. Through all the different cases it seemed…

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Research: Conquering Half the Battle

Vicky and I are taking the “divide and conquer” approach to this project as we dive in. She’s taking care of the introduction for now and I was in charge of the literature review section. 

Finding articles to include in the paper was a big step. It was difficult too for several reasons. First of all. there is so much material out there and second of all, I had to skim through many articles to find the ones that were most relevant. 

I compiled a list in Word that looked a little like this:

Image

 

Here they are in order:

Benoit, W. L. (2009). Another visit to the theory of image restoration strategies. Communication Quarterly48(1), 

Benoit, W. L. (2009). Hugh grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes.Communication Quarterly48(1), 

Benoit, W. L., & Fergerson, J. (2013). Limbaugh’s loose lips: Rush limbaugh’s image repair after the sandra fluke controversy. Journal of Radio & Audio Media,

Brazeal, L. M. (2008). The image repair strategies of terrell owens. Public Relations Review34(2),

Holtzhausen, D., & Roberts, G. (2009). An investigation into the role of image repair theory in strategic conflict management. Journal of Public Relations Research,

Moody, M. (2011). Jon and Kate Plus 8: A case study of social media and image repair tactics.Public Relations Review, 37(4),

Seeger, M. W., & Giffin Padgett, D. R. (2010). From image restoration to renewal: Approaches to understanding postcrisis communication. Review of Communication10(2),

These sources may change once we start writing the paper. I’m someone who tweaks papers a lot before they are done so who knows what will happen!

Anyway, Vicky and I will continue to research to create the best paper we can. We love our topic and we keep finding more to talk about. I’m still really confident this will be a great paper!

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Image Repair or Makeover: Literature Review: Miley Cyrus

1. Image repair in late night comedy: Letterman and the Palin joke controversy.

  • David Letterman delivered a controversial comment about Sarah Palin’s daughter on air.
  • Letterman made a joke about Palin’s daughters pregnancy and stated that she was “knocked up” by Alex Rodriquez at the Yankees game when in actuality Palin’s 14 year-old daughter was with her.
  • Letterman stated that the joke was simply to “laugh at” and he denied that it was meant to be harmful and derogative.
  • Letterman eventually drops the joke about Palin’s daughter and states that he should have said the joke in relations towards Rudy Giuliani
  • He attempts to defend himself by professing his lack of knowledge of the situation and Palin’s younger daughter attending the game with her.
  • Lettermen proceeds to make a joke about Rudy Giuliani to switch the focus of the joke onto another individual.
  • We are pointed out to the fact that Letterman’s intentions were not harmful and that in the past he has not said a joke in relation of defaming. The joke was ‘meaningless’.
  • The first attempt to correct the action did not receive a positive response. However, the second attempt did receive a lot more positive reaction including Sarah Palin.

Compton, J., & Miller, B. (2011). Image repair in late night comedy: Letterman and the palin joke controversy.. Informally published manuscript, Dartmouth College , Hanover, NH

2. Hooray for Hollywood? The 2011 Golden Globes and Ricky Gervais’ image repair strategies.

  • Ricky Gervais hosted the 2011 Golden Globe awards where he delivered harsh and mean jokes about awards, and celebrities in attendance.
  • Ricky appeared on Piers Morgan Tonight  in attempts to defend his performance
  • During the show Ricky used denial, evading responsibility, mortification, and tried to minimize what he had said during the award show.
  • Ricky then attempted to persuade that his performance was merely artistic and that he was ona path of truthfulness and attempting to discover himself.
  • The public did not take his “attempts” at defending what he had done and Ricky was unable to repair his image and what he had done.

Kauffman, J. (2012). Hooray for Hollywood? The 2011 Golden Globes and Ricky Gervais’ image repair strategies. Public Relations Review38(1), 46-50. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.09.003

3. Jon and Kate Plus 8: A case study of social media and image repair tactics.

  • In 2009 Jon and Kate went through a extremely public divorce, after their reality TV show had much fame. This study demonstrates how each character responded to the situation.
  • Jon and Kate used a number of image repair strategies and each took a different route which resulted in different outcomes of audience acceptance.
  • Kate was looked at by the public as the victim. She stood as the motherly figure and Jon was labeled as an untrustworthy husband and father.
  • The research gathered is from a year prior and after the divorce.
  • Magazine Covers
  • The outcome of the study shows that apology is one of the main tactics for this situation
  • Jon was unable to get a good image back
  • Kate was very successful in this study
  • Apologies must be and feel legitimate to be accepted by an audience

Moody, M. (2011). Jon and Kate Plus 8: A case study of social media and image repair tactics. Public Relations Review37(4), 405-414. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.06.004

4. Hugh Grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes.
By: William Benoit

  • Hugh Grant was arrested in Hollywood for scandalous behavior with a prostitute.
  • After this arrest Grant appeared on several talk shows in attempts to restore his reputation
  • During this appearances Grant apologized for his actions and also promoted his new film in attempts to change the ‘subject’
  • His reputation has started to gradually become what it was prior to the incident
  • Mortification and attacking his’s accuser

Benoit, W. L. (1997). Hugh Grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes. Communication Quarterly45(3), 251-267.

5. Christian Bale’s Account of a Profane Tirade: Salvation or “Bale-out?”
By: Nancy Johnson

  • During the filming of a movie Bale got frustrated with the Director of Photography and in 4 minutes used the “F” word forty times while yelling at the man.
  • The incident was recorded and a few months later posted on the internet.
  • The recording hit the radio and television making the speech heard nation wide.
  • Bale had an on-air phone conversation with a radio station to defend his act. This was picked up by every major news station and magazines (such as GQ and CNN)
  • Conducted several interviews promoting his movie and took the chance to defend his actions.
  • Bolstering, Differentiation, Attacking his Accusers
  • His image repair was successful

Johnson, N. (2011). Christian Bale’s Account of a Profane Tirade: Salvation or “Bale-out?”. Relevant Rhetoric: A New Journal Of Rhetorical Studies21-17.

6. Prior reputation and the transition from image repair to image makeover: The case of Hosni Mubarak.

  • This study looks at pre-crisis reputation of Egypt’s former president Hosni Mubarak.
  • The role of a negative pre-crisis reputation that can cause a strategy of “image repair”.
  • A negative pre-crisis image gives the demand for a image makeover instead of an image repair.
  • The choices of a new image is driven by cultural norms.
  • This study looks into the attempt at an image makeover that goes wrong.

Anagondahalli, D. (2013). Prior reputation and the transition from image repair to image makeover: The case of Hosni Mubarak. Public Relations Review39(3), 241-244. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2013.04.001

 

Kinda like this one…

miley-cyrus-before-and-after

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Amanda Bynes: Introduction and Lit. Review

By: Stephanie Kendall,  Jordan Culpepper and Karoline Argo

INTRODUCTION

Background information: From childhood star to 27 year old train wreck, Amanda Bynes total lack of tact on social media and life in general has catapulted her into constant negative media coverage, finally landing her in jail and eventually rehab for drug and alcohol abuse.

Amanda Bynes has had many obstacles in the past two years to put it lightly. The following is a list of her arrests:

  1. March 2012- ticketed for talking on cell while driving (California law)
  2. April 2012 – arrested for DUI and side swiping police car in west Hollywood
  3. Sept. 2012- charged for 2 alleged hit and runs. ( Hit and run charges were dismissed December 2012 due to financial settlement .)
  4. Sept. 2012- License suspended
  5. Sept 16 2012- driving without license…car impounded.
  6. May 13- no contest, 3 years probation. 
  7. May 23rd 2013- arrested for criminal possession of weed. Attempted tampering of evidence, and reckless endangerment. (Bynes threw bong outside window from 36th floor apartment.)
  8. Bynes underwent a psychiatric evaluation at a hospital before being processed at police station.
  9. May 25th- Bynes claims sexual harassment by arresting officer.

10. July 22- Bynes gets detained for starting small fire on a driveway, hospitalized for 72 hour 5150 mental health evaluation hold.

11. Bynes parents got conservatorship on august 9 over her.

12. Sept. 24th- Bynes lawyer asked for a 1368 penal code hearing to determine Bynes mental competence. 

13. Sept. 30- Bynes parents takes her away from UCLA medical center to receive specialized treatment in a private center outside LA.

blog shot 3

She really is in desperate need of some help, pronto!

How our report is helpful:

We will list out the problems she is facing and come up with a solid 6 month image repair plan to improve her overall image (including mandatory counseling.) We will also figure out how she can use social media for good, and include extensive research and stats on how her image is perceived by the public. Our research will focus on social media instead of the traditional outlets for media which will give it a fresh view from other image repairs. 

LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Jon & Kate plus 8 : A case study of social media and image repair tactics –By: Moody, Mia

  • In 2009 they went through a high publicized divorce, and the study looks at how they presented themselves through personal statements, interviews and social media.
  • Both used many image repair strategies and experienced different levels of success
  • Study focuses on one year before and one year after the divorce
  • Kate was depicted in media as a distraught wife/single mother and Jon as an irresponsible and untrustworthy father.
  • Studies show an apology is the best tactic for infidelity, but must be legitimate
  • Jon did not redeem his image as successfully as Kate did

Citation: Moody, M. (2011). Jon and Kate Plus 8: A case study of social media and image repair tactics. Public Relations Review37(4), 405-414. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.06.004

2. Image repair in late night comedy: Letterman and the Palin joke controversy- By: Compton, Josh and Miller, Brett

  • Late night talk show host, David Letterman told a controversial joke about Sarah Palin’s daughter on air
  • His joke mentioned Sarah Palin’s daughter getting pregnant at a baseball game: “One awkward moment for Sarah Palin at the Yankees game. During the seventh inning, her daughter was knocked up by Alex Rodriguez.” This “joke” was intended for Sarah Palin’s 18-year-old daughter, but her 14-year-old daughter was the one at the game with her
  • His first attempt to defuse the issue was to deny that his joke was intended to be harmful and demeaning, but was instead meant to be a simple joke for people to laugh at (the attempt and defusing the situation was not effective)
  • For Letterman’s second attempt at an apology he switches from denial to producing arguments of clear differentiation, defeasibility and bolstering
  • He later abandons the joke and claims defeasibility by stating he should have said the joke about another person, Rudy Giuliani
  • He then shifts to defending his intent with the joke, and highlights the lack of knowledge of the situation and then ends this part with the making a joke about Rudy Giuliani, which could be seen as a bolstering effect
  • This strategy makes a good claim by stating that he has never said such jokes in the past years working on the station
  • He ends his statements on the jokes by stating that his joke was beyond flawed and that his intent of the joke was meaningless and not intended to defame anyone
  • The response for his second attempt was a lot more successful with his audience and by Sarah Palin.

Citation: Compton, J., & Miller, B. (2011). Image repair in late night comedy: Letterman and the palin joke controversy.. Informally published manuscript, Dartmouth College , Hanover, NH , , Available from Ebscohost. (65495735)Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=6f495f07-2eeb-4e04-aef5-081dbfde83a7@sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=2&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl

3. Examining Image repair strategies across time: A governors response to unconventional behavior- By: Sibal, Kenneth

  • Image repair over a Republican Governor of Kentucky, Ernie Fletcher was charged with illegal hiring, firing and promoting cabinet officials during his term. This article covers his attempts and rebranding his image during his reelection.

Citation:  Sibal, K. M. , 2008-11-20 “Examining Image Repair Strategies Across Time: A        Governor’s Response to Unconventional Behavior” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA Online <PDF>. 2013-05-06 fromhttp://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p257634_index.html

4. Revisiting the Theory of Image restoration strategies- By: Burns, Judith P. and Bruner, Michael S.

  • The essay covers the theory of image restoration strategies in corporate contexts, because of:
    • The power and influence of large corporations today
    •  The interest in corporate discourse among scholars and practitioners in impression management, organizational communication, risk assessment, and applied communication research
    • First, summarize the theory of image restoration strategies.
    • Second, we explore several facets of the theory that we believe invite misinterpretation.
    • Finally, we offer positive suggestions for further development of the theory.
    • The foundation of the theory are two key assumptions: “First, communication is best conceptualized as a goal-directed activity. Second, maintaining a positive reputation is one of the central goals of communication”
    • We do not think that refining the typology of strategies is the place to begin. The strategies already have received considerable attention and, we argue, are adequate.
    • Explore image restoration in other contexts. For example, how would the theory help describe and explain discourse in the regulatory arena, such as the discourse of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?

Citation: Burns, J., & Bruner, M. (200). Revisiting the theory of image restoration strategies.Communication Quarterly 48(1), 27-39. Retrieved fromhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01463370009385577?journalCode=rcqu20

5. Hugh Grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes-By: William L. Benoit

  • Arrested in Hollywood for lewd behavior with a prostitute
  • Appeared on many talk shows to defend his image and to promote his new film and did not cancel appearances but used them to apologize
  • Grant used mortification, bolstering and attacking one’s accuser
  • Had a generally favorable reputation prior to incident
  • NYT  printed mug shot in “Living Arts” section
  • He apologized for the incident, and his reputation has gradually climbed back up

Citation: Benoit, W. (1997). Hugh grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes .Communication Quarterly45(3), 251-267. Retrieved fromhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.1080/01463379709370064

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Amanda Intro & Lit. Review

By: Jordan Culpepper, Karoline Argo, and Stephanie Kendall

INTRODUCTION

Background information: From childhood star to 27 year old train wreck, Amanda Bynes total lack of tact on social media and life in general has catapulted her into constant negative media coverage, finally landing her in jail and eventually rehab for drug and alcohol abuse.

Amanda Bynes has had many obstacles in the past two years to put it lightly. The following is a list of her arrests:

  1. March 2012- ticketed for talking on cell while driving (California law)
  2. April 2012 – arrested for DUI and side swiping police car in west Hollywood
  3. Sept. 2012- charged for 2 alleged hit and runs. ( Hit and run charges were dismissed December 2012 due to financial settlement .)
  4. Sept. 2012- License suspended
  5. Sept 16 2012- driving without license…car impounded.
  6. May 13- no contest, 3 years probation. 
  7. May 23rd 2013- arrested for criminal possession of weed. Attempted tampering of evidence, and reckless endangerment. (Bynes threw bong outside window from 36th floor apartment.)
  8. Bynes underwent a psychiatric evaluation at a hospital before being processed at police station.
  9. May 25th– Bynes claims sexual harassment by arresting officer.

10. July 22- Bynes gets detained for starting small fire on a driveway, hospitalized for 72 hour 5150 mental health evaluation hold.

11. Bynes parents got conservatorship on august 9 over her.

12. Sept. 24th– Bynes lawyer asked for a 1368 penal code hearing to determine Bynes mental competence. 

13. Sept. 30- Bynes parents takes her away from UCLA medical center to receive specialized treatment in a private center outside LA.

amandabynesno5150situation

She seriously has all the problems.

How our report is helpful:

We will list out the problems she is facing and come up with a solid 6 month image repair plan to improve her overall image (including mandatory counseling.) We will also figure out how she can use social media for good, and include extensive research and stats on how her image is perceived by the public. Our research will focus on social media instead of the traditional outlets for media which will give it a fresh view from other image repairs. 

LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Jon & Kate plus 8 : A case study of social media and image repair tactics –By: Moody, Mia

  • In 2009 they went through a high publicized divorce, and the study looks at how they presented themselves through personal statements, interviews and social media.
  • Both used many image repair strategies and experienced different levels of success
  • Study focuses on one year before and one year after the divorce
  • Kate was depicted in media as a distraught wife/single mother and Jon as an irresponsible and untrustworthy father.
  • Studies show an apology is the best tactic for infidelity, but must be legitimate
  • Jon did not redeem his image as successfully as Kate did

Citation: Moody, M. (2011). Jon and Kate Plus 8: A case study of social media and image repair tactics. Public Relations Review37(4), 405-414. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.06.004

2. Image repair in late night comedy: Letterman and the Palin joke controversy- By: Compton, Josh and Miller, Brett

  • Late night talk show host, David Letterman told a controversial joke about Sarah Palin’s daughter on air
  • His joke mentioned Sarah Palin’s daughter getting pregnant at a baseball game: “One awkward moment for Sarah Palin at the Yankees game. During the seventh inning, her daughter was knocked up by Alex Rodriguez.” This “joke” was intended for Sarah Palin’s 18-year-old daughter, but her 14-year-old daughter was the one at the game with her
  • His first attempt to defuse the issue was to deny that his joke was intended to be harmful and demeaning, but was instead meant to be a simple joke for people to laugh at (the attempt and defusing the situation was not effective)
  • For Letterman’s second attempt at an apology he switches from denial to producing arguments of clear differentiation, defeasibility and bolstering
  • He later abandons the joke and claims defeasibility by stating he should have said the joke about another person, Rudy Giuliani
  • He then shifts to defending his intent with the joke, and highlights the lack of knowledge of the situation and then ends this part with the making a joke about Rudy Giuliani, which could be seen as a bolstering effect
  • This strategy makes a good claim by stating that he has never said such jokes in the past years working on the station
  • He ends his statements on the jokes by stating that his joke was beyond flawed and that his intent of the joke was meaningless and not intended to defame anyone
  • The response for his second attempt was a lot more successful with his audience and by Sarah Palin.

Citation: Compton, J., & Miller, B. (2011). Image repair in late night comedy: Letterman and the palin joke controversy.. Informally published manuscript, Dartmouth College , Hanover, NH , , Available from Ebscohost. (65495735)Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=6f495f07-2eeb-4e04-aef5-081dbfde83a7@sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=2&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl

3. Examining Image repair strategies across time: A governors response to unconventional behavior- By: Sibal, Kenneth

  • Image repair over a Republican Governor of Kentucky, Ernie Fletcher was charged with illegal hiring, firing and promoting cabinet officials during his term. This article covers his attempts and rebranding his image during his reelection.

Citation:  Sibal, K. M. , 2008-11-20 “Examining Image Repair Strategies Across Time: A        Governor’s Response to Unconventional Behavior” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA Online <PDF>. 2013-05-06 fromhttp://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p257634_index.html

4. Revisiting the Theory of Image restoration strategies- By: Burns, Judith P. and Bruner, Michael S.

  • The essay covers the theory of image restoration strategies in corporate contexts, because of:
    • The power and influence of large corporations today
    •  The interest in corporate discourse among scholars and practitioners in impression management, organizational communication, risk assessment, and applied communication research
    • First, summarize the theory of image restoration strategies.
    • Second, we explore several facets of the theory that we believe invite misinterpretation.
    • Finally, we offer positive suggestions for further development of the theory.
    • The foundation of the theory are two key assumptions: “First, communication is best conceptualized as a goal-directed activity. Second, maintaining a positive reputation is one of the central goals of communication”
    • We do not think that refining the typology of strategies is the place to begin. The strategies already have received considerable attention and, we argue, are adequate.
    • Explore image restoration in other contexts. For example, how would the theory help describe and explain discourse in the regulatory arena, such as the discourse of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?

Citation: Burns, J., & Bruner, M. (200). Revisiting the theory of image restoration strategies.Communication Quarterly 48(1), 27-39. Retrieved fromhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01463370009385577?journalCode=rcqu20

5. Hugh Grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes-By: William L. Benoit

  • Arrested in Hollywood for lewd behavior with a prostitute
  • Appeared on many talk shows to defend his image and to promote his new film and did not cancel appearances but used them to apologize
  • Grant used mortification, bolstering and attacking one’s accuser
  • Had a generally favorable reputation prior to incident
  • NYT  printed mug shot in “Living Arts” section
  • He apologized for the incident, and his reputation has gradually climbed back up

Citation: Benoit, W. (1997). Hugh grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes .Communication Quarterly45(3), 251-267. Retrieved fromhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.1080/01463379709370064

 

 
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Amanda Bynes Introduction & Literature Review

By: Karoline Argo, Jordan Culpepper and Stephanie Kendall

INTRODUCTION

Background information: From childhood star to 27 year old train wreck, Amanda Bynes total lack of tact on social media and life in general has catapulted her into constant negative media coverage, finally landing her in jail and eventually rehab for drug and alcohol abuse.

Amanda Bynes has had many obstacles in the past two years to put it lightly. The following is a list of her arrests:

  1. March 2012- ticketed for talking on cell while driving (California law)
  2. April 2012 – arrested for DUI and side swiping police car in west Hollywood
  3. Sept. 2012- charged for 2 alleged hit and runs. ( Hit and run charges were dismissed December 2012 due to financial settlement .)
  4. Sept. 2012- License suspended
  5. Sept 16 2012- driving without license…car impounded.
  6. May 13- no contest, 3 years probation. 
  7. May 23rd 2013- arrested for criminal possession of weed. Attempted tampering of evidence, and reckless endangerment. (Bynes threw bong outside window from 36th floor apartment.)
  8. Bynes underwent a psychiatric evaluation at a hospital before being processed at police station.
  9. May 25th– Bynes claims sexual harassment by arresting officer.

10. July 22- Bynes gets detained for starting small fire on a driveway, hospitalized for 72 hour 5150 mental health evaluation hold.

11. Bynes parents got conservatorship on august 9 over her.

12. Sept. 24th– Bynes lawyer asked for a 1368 penal code hearing to determine Bynes mental competence. 

13. Sept. 30- Bynes parents takes her away from UCLA medical center to receive specialized treatment in a private center outside LA.

amanda-bynes-040813sp

amandabynesno5150situation

Yes-the girl is an absolute mess.

How our report is helpful:

We will list out the problems she is facing and come up with a solid 6 month image repair plan to improve her overall image (including mandatory counseling.) We will also figure out how she can use social media for good, and include extensive research and stats on how her image is perceived by the public. Our research will focus on social media instead of the traditional outlets for media which will give it a fresh view from other image repairs. 

LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Jon & Kate plus 8 : A case study of social media and image repair tacticsBy: Moody, Mia

  • In 2009 they went through a high publicized divorce, and the study looks at how they presented themselves through personal statements, interviews and social media.
  • Both used many image repair strategies and experienced different levels of success
  • Study focuses on one year before and one year after the divorce
  • Kate was depicted in media as a distraught wife/single mother and Jon as an irresponsible and untrustworthy father.
  • Studies show an apology is the best tactic for infidelity, but must be legitimate
  • Jon did not redeem his image as successfully as Kate did

Citation: Moody, M. (2011). Jon and Kate Plus 8: A case study of social media and image repair tactics. Public Relations Review, 37(4), 405-414. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.06.004

2. Image repair in late night comedy: Letterman and the Palin joke controversy- By: Compton, Josh and Miller, Brett

  • Late night talk show host, David Letterman told a controversial joke about Sarah Palin’s daughter on air
  • His joke mentioned Sarah Palin’s daughter getting pregnant at a baseball game: “One awkward moment for Sarah Palin at the Yankees game. During the seventh inning, her daughter was knocked up by Alex Rodriguez.” This “joke” was intended for Sarah Palin’s 18-year-old daughter, but her 14-year-old daughter was the one at the game with her
  • His first attempt to defuse the issue was to deny that his joke was intended to be harmful and demeaning, but was instead meant to be a simple joke for people to laugh at (the attempt and defusing the situation was not effective)
  • For Letterman’s second attempt at an apology he switches from denial to producing arguments of clear differentiation, defeasibility and bolstering
  • He later abandons the joke and claims defeasibility by stating he should have said the joke about another person, Rudy Giuliani
  • He then shifts to defending his intent with the joke, and highlights the lack of knowledge of the situation and then ends this part with the making a joke about Rudy Giuliani, which could be seen as a bolstering effect
  • This strategy makes a good claim by stating that he has never said such jokes in the past years working on the station
  • He ends his statements on the jokes by stating that his joke was beyond flawed and that his intent of the joke was meaningless and not intended to defame anyone
  • The response for his second attempt was a lot more successful with his audience and by Sarah Palin.

Citation: Compton, J., & Miller, B. (2011). Image repair in late night comedy: Letterman and the palin joke controversy.. Informally published manuscript, Dartmouth College , Hanover, NH , , Available from Ebscohost. (65495735)Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=6f495f07-2eeb-4e04-aef5-081dbfde83a7@sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=2&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl

3. Examining Image repair strategies across time: A governors response to unconventional behavior- By: Sibal, Kenneth

  • Image repair over a Republican Governor of Kentucky, Ernie Fletcher was charged with illegal hiring, firing and promoting cabinet officials during his term. This article covers his attempts and rebranding his image during his reelection.

Citation:  Sibal, K. M. , 2008-11-20 “Examining Image Repair Strategies Across Time: A        Governor’s Response to Unconventional Behavior” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA Online <PDF>. 2013-05-06 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p257634_index.html

4. Revisiting the Theory of Image restoration strategies- By: Burns, Judith P. and Bruner, Michael S.

  • The essay covers the theory of image restoration strategies in corporate contexts, because of:
    • The power and influence of large corporations today
    •  The interest in corporate discourse among scholars and practitioners in impression management, organizational communication, risk assessment, and applied communication research
    • First, summarize the theory of image restoration strategies.
    • Second, we explore several facets of the theory that we believe invite misinterpretation.
    • Finally, we offer positive suggestions for further development of the theory.
    • The foundation of the theory are two key assumptions: “First, communication is best conceptualized as a goal-directed activity. Second, maintaining a positive reputation is one of the central goals of communication”
    • We do not think that refining the typology of strategies is the place to begin. The strategies already have received considerable attention and, we argue, are adequate.
    • Explore image restoration in other contexts. For example, how would the theory help describe and explain discourse in the regulatory arena, such as the discourse of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?

Citation: Burns, J., & Bruner, M. (200). Revisiting the theory of image restoration strategies. Communication Quarterly , 48(1), 27-39. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01463370009385577?journalCode=rcqu20

5. Hugh Grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes-By: William L. Benoit

  • Arrested in Hollywood for lewd behavior with a prostitute
  • Appeared on many talk shows to defend his image and to promote his new film and did not cancel appearances but used them to apologize
  • Grant used mortification, bolstering and attacking one’s accuser
  • Had a generally favorable reputation prior to incident
  • NYT  printed mug shot in “Living Arts” section
  • He apologized for the incident, and his reputation has gradually climbed back up

Citation: Benoit, W. (1997). Hugh grant’s image restoration discourse: An actor apologizes . Communication Quarterly, 45(3), 251-267. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.1080/01463379709370064

 

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Justin Bieber Introduction & Literary Review

By: Caroline Ross & Aaron Lorick

Introduction

Our introduction is an overview of Justin Bieber‘s early life, how he rose to stardom, briefly comment on his current scandals (specifically his actions with women) and finally relate his crisis to Tiger Woods and Michael Phelps‘ similar situations and how they successfully implemented their image repair.

Early Years

  • Born in London, Ontario and raised in Stratfford, Ontario
  • Mother worked many low income jobs to raise him as a single mother
  • Bieber kept his musical aspirations to himself
  • Taught himself how to play the guitar, drums, piano and trumpet
  • After entering a competition, his mother began posting videos of Bieber singing on YouTube
  • Became a YouTube sensation beginning at the age of 12

Getting Discovered

  • Scooter Braun, a marketing executive of So So Def, discovered Bieber on accident (was searching for a different artist)
  • Braun sought out Bieber, pleading with his mother to let Braun manage the talented teen
  • A week after Bieber went to Atlanta, he sang for Usher
  • Usher ultimately won the contract rights in a war against Justin Timberlake

Bieber Goes Wild

  • Allegedly slept with a Panamanian hooker
  • Attempted to punch a DJ in a club, fled behind security
  • Spat on fans from his hotel balcony
  • Went to a brother in Brazil during his world tour
  • Drinking in underage clubs
  • Allegedly smoking weed
  • Recently charged with graffiti in Brazil – facing a year in prison

Fellow Celeb Crises

  • Tiger Woods underwent similar situation (multiple affairs) – managed his crisis well
  • Michael Phelps – lots of media scrutiny for his bong smoking incident

Literary Review

1.    Image Repair Discourse and Crisis Communication by William L. Benoit

  • Theory of image restoration discourse: must understand nature of attacks or complaints that prompt such responses
  • Two components of an attack: (1) the accused is held responsible for an action and (2) the act is considered offensive
  • Image restoration strategies: Justin Bieber particularly uses simple denial and bolstering
  • Effective image repair discourse: avoid false claims, provide adequate support for claims, avoid arguments that may backfire, address faults immediately

2.    Jon and Kate Plus 8: A case study of social media and image repair tactics by Mia Moody

  • Addresses other public figures who dealt with image repair due to infidelity (e.g. Hugh Grant, Gary Hart and Kobe Bryant)
  • Kate phase one: evading responsibility, attack of accuser, reducing offensiveness
  • Kate phase two: Her appearance changed (happy, longer hair etc.), used reduced offensiveness through her blog
  • Jon phase one: evasion of responsibility
  • Jon phase two: apologized finally, but used attack of accuser

3.    Repairing the Athlete’s Image: Studies in Sports Image Restoration by JR Blaney, L Lippert and SJ Smith

  • Woods used mortification and transcendence (arguing a right to privacy)
  • Ultimately able to save his career (his marriage wasn’t as lucky)

4.    Analysis of the Image Repair Discourse in the Michael Phelps Controversy by J. Walsh

  • Mortification
  • Acknowledges he did wrong
  • Tries to reduce the offensiveness through bolstering himself by reminding the people of his success
  • Minimization strategies: USOC reprimanded him for his actions while minimizing the seriousness by stating he didn’t violate anti doping rules

5. Image Repair Strategies of Terrell Owens by LeAnn M. Brazeal

  • Bolstering: stating football as his passion, greatest weakness is his being a fighter
  • Mortification: apologized to all stakeholders
  • Mistake: didn’t say he would repair his attitude (i.e. anger management)
  • When athletes must apologize, it is critical to embrace the values of their sports

6.    Media Scandals: Morality and Desire in the Popular Culture Marketplace by J Lull and S Hinerman

  • Scandal is negative
  • Scandal serves as a term to portray a breach in moral conduct and authority
  • A media scandal occurs when private acts that disgrace or offend the idealized, dominant morality of a social community are made public and narrated by the media
  • Four considerations play into media scandals
    1. Some people and institutions are more vulnerable to scandal than others. There are differences, therefore in scandal susceptibility
    2. Scandals are never interpreted uniformly by audiences, so they are polysemic
    3. Scandals frequently inform each other in a process of scandal intertextuality
    4. Scandals’ relationship to one another are sometimes perceived by news agencies and by audiences in terms of social hierarchy
  • Scandals often compete with one another
  • Specific scandalous acts are often perceived within a structure of expectations related to the person and what is expected with them

Works Cited

Benoit, William L. (1997). Image repair discourse and crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 177-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111(97)90023-0.

Benoit, William L. (2013).  Tiger Woods’s Image Repair: Could He Hit One Out of the Rough? J.R. Blaney, L. Lippert & S. J. Smith (Eds.), Repairing the Athlete’s Image: Studies in Sports Image Restoration. (pp. 89-96).  Plymouth, United Kingdom: Lexington Books.

Brazeal, LeAnn M. (2008). The image repair strategies of Terrell Owens. Public Relations Review. 34(2). 145-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2008.03.021.

Lull, J., & Hinerman, S. (1997). The Search for Scandal. J. Lull & S. Hinerman (Eds.), Media Scandals: Morality and Desire in the Popular Culture Marketplace. 1-33. Cambridge, England: Polity Press

Moody, Mia. (2011).  Jon and Kate Plus 8: A case study of social media and image repair tactics. Public Relations Review, 37(4). 405-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.06.004.

Walsh, J., & McAllister-Spooner, S. (2011).  Analysis of the image repair discourse in the Michael Phelps controversy. Pubic Relations Review, 37(2). 157-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.01.001.

 

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Chris Brown paper’s introduction

By Yalin Cao

Alexa and me choose Chris Brown as our subject, in the introduction, we would like to introduce his background information and crisis since he became a public figure.

Background

  • .Chris Brown was born on 1989, he is a famous musician, dancer and actor.
  • Parents was divorced when he was young, his mother always subjected to domestic violence by boyfriend, it left a lot terrible memory in Chris’s mind.
  • His mother recognized son’s talent in music and try to find a record place, finally signed with Jive Records in 2004.
  • Until now, Chris publish 6 music albums, headline 5 tours, and a lot acting deals.Chris_brown

Crisis

  • Assualted Rihanna in 2009, it cause invisible facial injuries, because of this thing, Chris Brown lost many commercial contract and invitation of stage performances. Except these, he met restraining order, counselling and probation.
  • Smashed windows in the back stage of Good Morning, America.
  • Punched Frank Ocean in the outside of Hollywood recording studio.
  • Made diss at Drake on Twitter after NYC scuffle.
  • Arrested in the Washington D.C by assaulting a fans.

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This is only the brief introduction about our paper, we will do some correction and fulfillment on it, I am so looking forward to start our rough draft in this week.

 

 

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Lit Review: Other Relevant Cases to Johnny Manziel

Like Johnny Manziel, other high-profile athletes have been in situations putting their reputations at risk.

The five cases included in our research cover Michael Vick, LeBron James, Alex Rodriguez, Terrell Owens and Michael Phelps. These will help us to further understand the different public relations methods used during a crisis situation.

 The Michael Vick case is more severe than Manziel’s diva behavior, but it helps to cover a wide range of crises and responses. Vick was the ringleader for a dogfighting chain and encouraged the killing of bad performing dogs.

 After his 18-month stay in prison, Vick didn’t focus his publicity on being remorseful for what he had done, but on proving to people he had changed. He got involved with the Humane Society to eradicate dog fighting and traveled to schools to educate children on the proper treatment of animals.

Michael Vick– Dog fighting/ Animal Abuse

  • Eradicate dog fighting with Humane Society
  • Travel to educate children on proper animal care
  • Show he changed by his actions

The LeBron James case emphasizes that people get their information more from social media than any other news outlet. So most people are hearing fabricated stories before they hear the truth.

The fact that LeBron shared his moving teams with his fans on “The Decision” caused huge controversy. It was a HUGE deal. Fan involvement is a crucial part of fan perception of an athlete. The LeBron James case discusses how the different types of fan involvement create different reactions during a crisis or scandal.

LeBron James– Switched Teams

  • Came out on television special “The Decision”
    • Outraged more fans with low involvement than high
    • Fans with deeply rooted feelings about LeBron were more likely to stand by him

Alex Rodriguez has undergone a lot of heat in the public for steroid use. His strategy for addressing it to the public was by use of television. His main strategy was to bolster the situation—he shifted the attention to how honest he for coming clean rather than choosing to continue the lie.

Alex Rodriguez– Steroid Use

  • Bolstering
    • Shifted attention to his  honesty
    • Highlighted more important characteristics of himself
  • Mortification
    • Admits use of steroids and asks for forgiveness
  • Blame
    • Too much pressure to perform

Terrell Owens’ is known for being a diva, much like Johnny Manziel. After Owens’ public controversy over his contract and countless other inappropriate antics, Owens attempted certain strategies to fix his damaged reputation.

 Terrell Owens– Bad Attitude

  • Bolstering
    • Highlights his great football playing in Press conference
    • Highlights he’s a fighter
    • Mortification
      • He apologized to everybody in Press Releases

Owens was able to create common grounds with his fans using these techniques although he never said he would change his ways.

Michael Phelps was successfully able to repair his image after marijuana allegations. The first thing he did was apologize and admit it was wrong and that it won’t happen again. He was able to restore his reputation mainly by the use of bolstering.

Michael Phelps– Marijuana

  • Mortification
    • He acknowledged the behavior and said it demonstrated bad judgment
    • Bolstering
      • He reminded people he is a gold medal Olympian
      • He is young and acted youthful
      • Corrective Action
        • He promises it will not happen again

Because of Phelps’ reputation and image, he had a lot of sponsors such as Speedo and Visa also administering bolstering and minimizing tactics for his actions.

The most common tactic used by all these athletes is bolstering as a response to a crisis. The go-to reaction seems to be, “yeah I did this, but THIS is more important to focus on” with example X, Y and Z listed as reasons why.